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儿科专家:睡眠才是孩子的头等大事,很多家长忽略了 -pg电子游戏官网官方网站

2017
2019-1-4 21:30 转载 · 图片4

本文转载自公众号:博雅小学堂

文 / 江帆
上海交大医学院附属上海儿童医学中心 / 教育部环境与儿童健康重点实验室副主任 / 美国睡眠学会会员

许多上海人还清楚地记得,2007 年上海出台 “推迟中小学上学时间” 的通知,让孩子多了一个小时的睡眠时间。而这一政策落地的重要推手,正是本文作者江帆所在的科研团队。

她从事儿童睡眠研究近 20 年,牵头开展了全国儿童睡眠研究,发现与国际水平相比,中国儿童的睡眠时间普遍偏短,而导致儿童睡眠不足的主要原因就是 “课业负担过重” 以及 “上学过早” 两大因素。

家长在择校的时候,总会面临一个问题:好的学校不可能就在你身边。那么,要不要宁可上学远一点,也要让孩子进我们心目中所谓的好学校呢?

很显然,上学路远,就会影响孩子的睡眠。我们花十几年时间,对孩子从生下来到 18 岁的睡眠时间作了一个统计,并把中国孩子的睡眠时间和瑞士的孩子做了一个比较。

6岁是拐点

无论中国孩子还是外国孩子,趋势是一样的,小的时候睡眠时间长,随着年龄增长,睡眠逐渐减少。

我们可以发现,瑞士孩子睡眠时间这条线是很平和的。但在中国孩子身上,这条曲线就有一个非常明显的陡坡:它出现在孩子 6 岁的时候。

这个陡坡绝对不是生理性的,这是什么原因?

原因就是一般上学以后,孩子的生活完全变了。而且我们发现课业负担的问题绝对不仅仅来自学校——当学校想着要减负的时候,家长就给学校压力,学校布置得少了,家长自己给布置。

如果家长帮孩子择校,孩子的起床时间更早,于是 6 岁就出现了一个非生理性的睡眠时间下降。

我们在上海做了 10 个区县的调查,分析不同时间的睡眠对孩子学习成绩的影响。并通过老师来评价孩子各个方面的表现,包括注意力、自觉性、语文、数学、同学关系和总的成绩。

结果发现,睡眠少于 9 个小时的孩子,他所有的纬度都明显差于睡眠充足的孩子。

睡眠质量也是这样——质量和时间是有交互性的,当你的睡眠时间得不到保障,睡眠质量也会下降。

我们还做了一些性别的比较,男生和女生有不同吗?

在小学阶段发现,女生的话,睡眠对学生的影响方面,只有注意力是受影响的,睡眠不足的时候,注意力会下降,但是女生在其它纬度上似乎影响不明显。

男孩子不得了,在他脑发育过程中确实有自身的特点,男生如果睡眠不足的话,各个纬度都出现了对他学业成绩的影响——在小学生阶段,因为男女在发育过程中,确实有一定的差异性。

周末补觉有用吗?

很多家长说远一点没问题,平时少睡,周末补回来。于是我们又研究了周末补觉问题。

我们分了三组,第一组是平时和周末睡眠都少于 9 个小时。第二组周末和平时睡眠都在 10 个小时以上。第三组是平时睡不够的,到了周末补一个小时甚至两个小时。

结果三组之间有明显差异:最好的就是周末和平时都睡得充足的,但第二组出乎我们意料了,平时和周末都小于 9 个小时的排在第二。最糟糕的是平时睡得少,周末再补的这一组。

睡眠是有个体差异的,有的人睡 8、9 个小时,有的人睡 6 个小时就够了。在孩子中间,真正缺觉缺得厉害的是第三组,说明他们平时缺得更厉害,对他的学业成绩是最大的影响。

睡眠不足的影响

我们也在研究睡眠不足对学习的影响是什么样的。我们把孩子跟成人做了一个比较。就像模拟给孩子加压,让他每天少睡一点,持续五天。我们看对大学生和对中学生的影响——每天少睡两个小时以后,大学生自我感受很难受,但是小学生每天给他少睡两个小时,自我感受度不是很强。

问题来了,不是感到很犯困,对他的学习记忆有没有影响?

成人尽管特别困,但他有很强的代偿能力,基本上没有影响他的反应时间。孩子主观嗜睡程度不是很明显,但在完成简单任务的时候,这些孩子出现了明显的反应时间延长,反应速度慢。而在一些复杂任务的时候,孩子不影响,这又是为什么?

我们发现孩子在缺觉的时候,他自己没有感觉,但他大脑的很多区域出现了抑制,表现就是粗心,他的皮层功能出现下降。但当他做难题时,他的大脑出现了反应性的代偿——他动用更多的脑区,维持警觉性。

在小学阶段,记性好的孩子在前期有很大的优势。但本身记忆不是特别强的孩子,就会出现很大的问题。比如说有的学校很注重心算的能力,这类孩子就会产生很强的挫败感。

我曾经碰到一个孩子,他的高级认知功能非常好,思维能力和解决问题能力非常强,但短期记忆有问题。结果他给自己下了一个定义:“我是一个数学傻瓜”。

当孩子能力水平跟教育环境不匹配的时候,孩子在早期非常容易丧失自信。当一个孩子没有自信,他对自己的期望值就会下降,就会降低他的努力程度,反正我不行,同时更要命的是这样的孩子比较容易出现焦虑情绪。

当这种焦虑和低努力交织在一起的时候,孩子会出现真正学业的失败。

所以在早期,家长千万注意要让孩子建立自信,如果在孩子很多能力还没有展示的时候,我们把他的自信心压下去了,这是最要命的。

作为家长,我希望家长应该了解自己的孩子,助力孩子的发展。作为儿科医生,我们很愿意跟家长合作、学校合作,尤其是特殊需求的孩子,做更多的帮助。托起孩子,扶着他走,助力他成长。

我们的最终目标让每个孩子成才,帮助他们找到一条适合他们健康成长的路,这才是我们的终极目标。

本文转载自公众号:博雅小学堂


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5年前
标题党!只能说睡眠很重要。但睡眠与择校间的关系如何,文中半点都没有说明。这专家讲了老半天大家都知道的知识,得出的却是风马牛不相及的睡眠与择校关系的结论。这脑洞开得让人觉得,专家真是专家,竟然可以用数据做一套皇帝的新装。
5年前
rainbowfish 标题党!只能说睡眠很重要。但睡眠与择校间的关系如何,文中半点都没有说明。这专...
说的很清楚了
5年前
mnfiero 说的很清楚了
有对比研究了吗?择校前与择校后的成绩对比了吗?有跟踪数据了吗?如果连择校前后的学习成绩数据都没有,不是标题党那是什么?我总不能说这种专家不是昧着良心,就是假冒的专家吧。
5年前
作为一个合格的研究者,至少应该知道什么数据得出什么结论,这一数据能够支持结论的范围。如果连这基本常识都没有,只能证明我所说的判断。
人民群众的眼亮上雪亮的,知道什么是合理的选择。
5年前
rainbowfish 标题党!只能说睡眠很重要。但睡眠与择校间的关系如何,文中半点都没有说明。这专...
确实标题有点不妥。我的理解是文中的“择校”可以替换成其他诸如上辅导班、刷题这些词都不会影响文章想表达的意思——睡眠很重要!仅此而已
5年前
如果择的校就在自家隔壁,这个标题怎么立得住?!
5年前
rainbowfish 标题党!只能说睡眠很重要。但睡眠与择校间的关系如何,文中半点都没有说明。这专...
确实文中结论站不住脚
5年前
不啃老的双职工,起大早上班的怎么办?孩子不择校,家长上班也没几个离家够近的啊。
5年前
不啃老的双职工,起大早上班的怎么办?孩子不择校,家长上班也没几个离家够近的啊。
5年前
家长与其花时间和精力去择校,不如多花时间和精力让孩子多睡点
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小花生小溪
小花生小溪
2017
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